Abstract of Special Research Report (SRR-No.32)
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan
A Study on the Prevention of Accidents Caused by Human Errors in the Construction Work (Final Report)
The Differences of Perceptioons on Occurrence and Prevention of Unsafe Behaviors by Job Position at Construction Sites
|Takuro SHOJI, Yoshiyuki EGAWA and Motoya TAKAGI|
: In the construction industry, recently many labor accidents occur due to unsafe behavior or human error of workers rather than trouble with machinery or equipment. Recent research has some advances in revealing the factors that cause unsafe behavior at work sites and the effective prevention measures. However, it is also clarified that workers of different ages or positions have different attitudes or perceptions for safety or accident prevention. In order to perform safety measures smoothly at work sites, it is required for all the workers at the site to understand the same safety policy and plan of the site or company.
The Procedure of Communication on Safety Information at Construction Sites
|Yoshiyuki EGAWA, Motoya TAKAGI and Takahoro NAKAMURA|
: In cases of communication of inappropriate information between the original contractor and the subcontractors at construction sites, labor accidents might occur. Therefore, the procedure of communication at construction sites was investigated. Construction site had 5 types of communication. Those were morning assemblies, KY activities, task coordination meetings, instructions for new recruits and conferences on safety & health. These types of communication were classified into two types from the point of informational channel. One type was "Vertical Direction Channel on top-down of Construction", which was a one-way formal communication from the top director of the original contractor to workers of the subcontractors. The other type was "Horizontal Direction Channel within the top-down of Construction", which was mutual communication by workers of the subcontractors. It was possible for "Top-down Channel" to inform many workers. "Horizontal Direction Channel" was capable of asking questions or consultation with workers. The procedures of communication on morning assemblies and instructions for new recruits were the type of "Top-down Channel". KY activities, task coordination meetings and conferences on safety & health were combinations of two types, namely, "Top-down Channel" and "Horizontal Direction Channel".
Development of a Small Size Simulator for Simulated Experience of Hazard Simulation of Excavator Accident
|Kiyoshi FUKAYA and Takahiro NAKAMURA|
: A large excavator simulator for research was developed, and the research on the operator's actions was done. On the basis of these experiences, a small PC based simulator was developed for the safety training. This simulator has a front screen with 6 planes, 8 projectors, a driver's seat on a motion base, and PCs that generate CG images and control the system. A set of 4 projectors is used to project 4 images to 6 planes for one-eye, and 2 sets of projectors are used for stereoscopic viewing. The aim of the simulator is to give simulated experiences of excavator accidents. A turnover accident in driving on a slope, in loading to the truck and in running over uneven surfaces can be experienced.
The Effects of the Imitative-Risk-Experience on the Safety Education for Workers and Related Issues
: Recently, the imitative experience methods have been adopted in safety education for workers in Japan. Some employ a simulator which is supported by the computational technologies for making virtual danger. Others show the imitative disasters (ex. electrification, falling object, gas explosion, pinched hand, getting caught in rollers, etc.) to workers by using working models or specific devices. Also, there is a way of making workers experience actual (but little) danger by using real machinery under the controlled condition.