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国際安全衛生センタートップ国別情報日本:関係法令 > 資料:機械の包括的な安全基準に関する指針

Guidelines for the Comprehensive Safety Standards of Machinery (2007)

Up Date : 2008.03.26

First:Purpose, etc.

1.Purpose

To further prevent industrial accidents caused by machinery, it is necessary that employers who have workers using machinery should investigate the risks or hazards, etc. as per the provisions of Article 28-2, paragraph 1, of the Industrial Safety and Health Act [Act No. 57 of 1972, hereinafter referred to as the "Act "] and take the necessary measures appropriately and effectively in connection with machinery that the workers are caused to use, and should ensure that the necessary measures based on the findings of the above investigation are appropriately and effectively taken in order to protect workers from danger or health disorders.

Moreover, Article 3, paragraph 2 of the Act stipulates that anyone designing, manufacturing, or importing machinery or other equipment shall work to help prevent the occurrence of industrial accidents due to the use of machinery.It is therefore important that, in the stage of designing and manufacturing machinery as well, the risks or hazards, etc. should be investigated and measures (hereinafter referred to as "risk assessment, etc.") based on the findings thereof should be taken and that, in the stage of using machinery, the necessary information should be appropriately provided to conduct the risk assessment, etc. appropriately.

Therefore, to ensure machinery safety in the stages of designing, manufacturing, and using machinery, these guidelines are hereby set forth as standards concerning the comprehensive safety policies applicable to all machinery."Second" sets forth the action items of persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.. of machinery.Then, "Third" sets forth the detailed guidelines "set forth by Director general of the Labor Standards Bureau of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare concerning machinery safety" in 1 of "Guidelines for the Investigation, etc. of risks or hazards, etc." (Guideline Notice No. 1 of 2006 concerning the Investigation, etc. of risks or hazards, etc.; hereinafter referred to as "Guidelines for Risk Assessment").

2.Application

These guidelines pertain to risks or hazards of machinery (which refers to hazards of machinery, and hereinafter merely referred to as "hazards") and indicate the action items by entities engaged in the designing, manufacturing, modifying, etc. or importing (hereinafter referred to as "manufacturing, etc.") of machinery and by employers who have workers using machinery.

3.Definitions of terms

For the purpose of these guidelines, the definitions of the terms indicated in the following items shall be as set forth in the corresponding items.

    • (1) Machine (Machinery) : assembly of linked parts or components , at least one of which moves, with the appropriate machine actuators, control and power circuits, joined together for a specific application, in particular for the processing, treatment, moving or packaging of a material
    • (2) Protective measures: measure intended to achieve risk (which refers to the severity of injuries or diseases that may stem from hazards and the probability of such occurrence.The same shall apply hereinafter) reduction (including elimination of hazards, and the same shall apply hereinafter).These include inherently safe design measure, safeguarding, complementary protective measures, provision of information for use and development of an action system for work, development of safe working procedures, implementation, etc. of training for workers, and use of personal protective equipments.
    • (3) Inherently safe design measures: protective measure which either eliminates hazards or reduces the risks associated with hazards by changing the design or operating characteristics of the machine without the use of guards or protective devices (which refers to active opto-electronic protective device (AOPD), two-hand control device, etc. to be installed on machinery so that it will be used either in isolation or in combination with a guard, thereby reducing risks)
    • (4) Safeguarding: protective measures using guard or protective device
    • (5) Complementary protective measures: protective measures taken to avoid, etc., emergency situations that could potentially lead to industrial accidents (limited to measures other than inherently safe design, safeguarding, and the provision of information for use)
    • (6) Information for use: instructions and other information to be provided by persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.. by posting signs or warning label, installing signal devices or warning devices, or issuing the instruction handbook, etc. in order to ensure that the machinery is used safely and correctly.
    • (7) Residual risk: remaining risk after protective measures have been taken
    • (8) Intended use of a machine: use of a machine in accordance with the information provided in the instructions for use by persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.. as specified in information for use.
      They shall include settings, teachings, process switchovers, operation, cleaning, maintenance and inspection, etc.
    • (9) Reasonably foreseeable misuse : use of a machine in a way not intended by persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.., but which may result from readily predicable human behavior

Second:Action items by persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.. of machinery

1.Implementation of risk assessment of machinery in manufacturing, etc.

Persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.. of machinery shall conduct an investigation of the risks or hazards, etc. of machinery in manufacturing, etc. (hereinafter merely referred to as "risk assessment") and, as measures based on the findings of thereof, carry out the following items:

    • (1) Set up specification of the limits of the machine (which refer to limits and range for the use, space and time).
    • (2) Identification of hazard (which refers to the action of finding and determining identical instances indicated as examples as hazards caused by machinery) in tasks, etc. where workers interact with machinery.
    • (3) Estimation of risk for the hazards identified in (2) and consideration whether adequate risk reductions have been achieved.
    • (4) Reduction of risk by considering and carrying out protective measures.

In implementation of (1) to (4), all instances of hazards identified shall be repeatedly implemented as shown in the Attached figure.

2.Implementation timing

Persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.. of machinery shall carry out the risk assessment, etc. on the following dates:

    • a) when machinery is designed, manufactured, modified, etc.
    • b) when machinery is imported and transferred or lent
    • c) when an industrial accident caused by machinery manufactured, etc.
    • d) when a new set of knowledge concerning safety and health is accumulated, etc.

3.Set up specification of the limits of the machine

Persons engaged in manufacturing, etc. of machinery shall set up specification of the limits of the machine as listed below:

    • a) use limits: the intended use of machinery, reasonably foreseeable misuses, workers' experiences, and abilities, etc.
    • b) space limits: range, etc. required for machine action, installation, maintenance and inspection, etc.
    • c) time limits: the foreseeable “life limit” etc. of machinery and their components and parts

4.Hazards identification

Persons engaged in manufacturing, etc. of machinery shall identify hazards in tasks, etc. where workers interact with machinery as listed below by means such as referring to examples presented in Attached Table 1.

  • a) tasks for constructing of machinery (except for cases where machinery is imported)
  • b) tasks in a way as intended use of machinery
  • c) tasks concerning the onset of machinery use such as transport, installation and commissioning, etc.
  • d) tasks after the de-commissioning of machinery use such as dismantling, disposal, etc.
  • e) tasks in situations of machinery as failure, abnormalities, etc.
  • f) tasks in a way as a reasonably foreseeable misuse of machinery
  • g) where persons other than worker using machinery (limited to reasonably foreseeable people) approaches hazards of the machinery

5.Risk estimation, etc.

  • (1) Persons engaged in manufacturing, etc. of machinery shall consider respectively the severity of possible injuries or diseases and their probability for each hazards identified in 4, and shall estimate the risks and examine whether adequate risk reductions have been achieved.
  • (2) In risk estimation, the risk from the most likely severity of the harm that is likely to occur from each identified hazard shall be considered, but the highest foreseeable severity shall also be taken into account, even if the probability of such an occurrence is not high.

6.Consideration and implementation of protective measures

  • (1) Persons engaged in manufacturing, etc.. of machinery shall, according to the results of 3 to 5, be sure to meet any legal requirements and shall, for any hazards concerning which the said person judges that adequate risk reductions have not been achieved, consider and implement protective measures related to machinery according to the priorities presented below.
    • a)Carry out inherently safe design measures by using the method specified in Attached Table 2 or other appropriate method.
    • b)Carry out safeguarding by using the method set forth in Attached Table 3 or other appropriate method, and carry out complementary protective measures by using the method set forth in Attached Table 4 or other appropriate method.
    • c)Provide for anyone receiving transfer or loan of machinery with information for use by using the method set forth in Attached Table 5 or other appropriate method.
  • (2) In considerating for (1), information for use shall not be a substitute for the correct application ofinherently safe design measures, safeguarding, or complementary protective measures.

Moreover, when implement protective measures, take care that the measures taken do not generate new hazards and increasing risks.If in case of that implemented protective measures still results insuch bad effects, the particular measures for risk reduction shall be taken.

7.Recording

Persons engaged in manufacturing, etc. of machinery shall record and keep on file the following matters regarding the results of risk assessment, etc. of machinery manufactured.

If a change, etc. in specifications or components causes any difference between the actual machinery conditions or between the situation and the recorded contents, the record shall be promptly updated.

  • a) Hazards identified
  • b)Risks estimated
  • c) Protective measures implemented and residual risks.

Third:Action items by employers who have workers using machinery

1.Implementation items

Employers who have workers using machinery shall conduct risk assessment of machinery according to the actions set forth in 3 of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment.

In that case, 3 (1) of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment shall be implemented as replaced with " the identification of hazards in tasks, etc. where workers interact with machinery."

2.Organizational structure

Employers who have workers using machinery shall conduct risk assessment of machinery by using the implementation system, etc. set forth in 4 of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment.

In that case, 4 (1) e) of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment shall be implemented as replaced with "Engineers in production and maintenance departments, persons engaged in manufacturing, etc. of machinery, and other personnel with technical knowledge shall be caused to participate."

3.Implementation timing

Employers who have workers using machinery shall conduct risk assessment of machinery as per (1) b) to e) of (1), along with (2), of 5 "Implementation Timing" of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment.

4.Determination of risk assessment

Employers who have workers using machinery shall determine the subject to the risk assessment of machinery according to 6 of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment.

5.Collection of information

Employers who have workers using machinery shall, in implementing risk assessment of machinery, obtain and use information according to 7 of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment.

In that case, 7 (1) b) of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment shall be implemented as replaced with "intended use provided by persons engaged in manufacturing, etc. of machinery, and information for use such as residual risks presented in Attached Table 5-1."

6.Hazards Identification

Employers who have workers using machinery shall confirm information for use and identify hazards listed below in tasks, etc. where workers interact with machinery by means such as referring to matters exemplified in Attached Table 1.

  • a) tasks in a way as “intended use of machinery”
  • b) tasks concerning the onset of machinery use such as transport, installation, test run, etc.
  • c) tasks after the de-commissioning of machinery use such as dismantling, disposal, etc.
  • d) tasks in situations of machinery as failure, abnormalities, etc.
  • e) tasks in a way as a reasonably foreseeable misuse
  • f) where persons other than worker using machinery (limited to reasonably foreseeable people) approaches hazards of the machinery

7.Risk estimation, etc.

  • (1) Employers who have workers using machinery shall, for each hazards identified in 6, use the methods, etc. presented in a) to c) of 9 (1) of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment, thereby estimating the risks and considering whether adequate risk reductions have been achieved and the priorities of risk reductions.
  • (2) Employers who have workers using machinery shall, in estimating the risks specified in (1), estimate the risks from the most likely severity of the harm that is likely to occur from each identified hazard shall be considered, but the highest foreseeable severity shall also be taken into account, even if the probability of such an occurrence is not high..

8.Consideration and implementation of protective measures

  • (1) Employers who have workers using machinery shall, based on information for use on and the results of 7, be sure to satisfy any legal requirements and shall, for the instances of hazards concerning which the said person judges that adequate risk reductions have not been achieved, consider and carry out protective measures for machinery according to the following priorities:
    • a)Of the inherently safe design measures based on the method set forth in Attached Table 2 or other appropriate method, automate the supply of materials to the machinery, processing, the removal of products, etc., and conduct anything else possible.
    • b)Conduct safeguarding by using the method set forth in Attached Table 3 or other appropriate method, and carry out complementary protective measures by using the method set forth in Attached Table 4 or other appropriate method.
    • c)Develop a new work procedure to inform workers of residual risk remaining after protective measures have been taken set forth in a) and b), and provide worker training, etc.
    • d)If necessary, make workers use personal protective equipments.
  • (2) In considering for (1), note (2) and (3) of 10 of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment shall be take care.

Moreover, when implement protective measures, take care that the measures taken do not generate new hazards and increasing risks.If in case of that implemented protective measures still results insuch bad effects, the particular measures for risk reduction shall be taken.

9.Recording

Employers who have workers using machinery shall, regarding the results of risk assessment of machinery, record 11 (2) to (4) of the Guidelines for Risk Assessment , the protective measures implemented, and residual risks, and keep the same on file together with information for use.

10.Considerations, etc. in placing an order

Employers who have workers using machinery shall selected machinery that comply with the considerations presented from Attached Tables 2 to 5 and shall, as necessary, include these considerations in the conditions for an order of machinery.

They shall also notify persons engaged in manufacturing, etc. of the knowledge, etc. concerning the safety of the particular machinery as revealed after the onset of the use thereof.


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